In press statements following the National Assembly's session for approving the bill, Al-Shihab said respecting religions and religious symbols does not contradict international conventions. "Freedom of expression does not mean defaming or offending sanctities of nations," Al-Shihab said.
He also noted the bill has not contradicted previous fatwas, religious edicts, of the Fatwa Committee of the Ministry.
The National Assembly passed Thursday the proposal to add two articles to the penal code to toughen punishment for abuse or disrespect of The Almighty, the Prophet, and the Prophets.
The first article makes insulting or mocking God and His Prophets and Messengers, Holy Quran, Prophet Mohammad and his wives punishable by death, if the offenders insisted on the crime and refused to declare his repentance.
The same punishment is applied to those who describe themselves as new prophets or messengers from God. But if the accused is a non-Muslim, the punishment would be lowered to jail for no more than 10 years. The second article states that who commits the abovementioned crimes and declares repentance shall be punished with imprisonment for no more than 5 years or paying a fine that does not exceed 10,000 Kuwaiti dinars.
Source the Kuwait News Agency.
I wonder if they remember that the forces which freed them in the 1990-1991 Gulf War were by and large Christian.
Well this is the religion of peace if you ask G.W. Bush. Lies.
Father Miguel de la Mora de la Mora, Father Pedro de Jesus Maldonado Lucero, Father Jose Maria Robles Hurtado, Father Rodrigo Aguilar Alemán, Father Luis Batiz Sainz, Father Mateo Correa Magallanes.
Portrait of the Mexican Martyrs at the Knights of Columbus Museum in New Haven.
The 1920s brought a revolution to Mexico, along with the widespread persecution of Catholics.
Missionaries were expelled from the country, Catholic seminaries and schools were closed, and the Church was forbidden to own property. Priests and laymen were told to denounce Jesus and their faith in public; if they refused, they faced not just punishment but torture and death.
During this time of oppression and cruelty, the Knights of Columbus did not retreat in Mexico but grew dramatically, from 400 members in 1918 to 43 councils and 6,000 members just five years later. In the United States at the time, the Knights handed out five million pamphlets that described the brutality of the Mexican government toward Catholics. As a result, the Mexican government greatly feared and eventually outlawed the Order.
Thousands of men, many of whom were Knights, would not bow to these threats or renounce their faith, and they often paid with their lives. They took a stand when that was the most difficult thing they could do, and their courage and devotion have echoed down through the decades.
Here are some of the stories of the Knights of Columbus who joined the ranks of the Mexican Martyrs and were among the 25 victims of religious persecution canonized in 2000 by Pope John Paul II.
Father Miguel de la Mora de la Mora
Father Miguel de la Mora de la Mora of Colima belonged to Council 2140. Along with several other priests, he publicly signed a letter opposing the anti-religious laws imposed by the government. He was soon arrested and, with his brother Regino looking on, Father de la Mora was executed without a trial by a single shot from a military officer as he prayed his rosary. It was Aug. 7, 1927.
Father Pedro de Jesus Maldonado Lucero
Father Pedro de Jesus Maldonado Lucero was a member of Council 2419. Forced to study for the priesthood in El Paso, Texas, because of the political situation in Mexico, he returned home after his ordination in 1918 despite the risk. Captured on Ash Wednesday, 1937, while distributing ashes to the faithful, Father Maldonado Lucero was so savagely beaten that one eye was forced from its socket. He died the next day at a local hospital. His tombstone aptly described this martyr in four words: "You are a priest."
Father Jose Maria Robles Hurtado
Father Jose Maria Robles Hurtado was a member of Council 1979. Ordained in 1913, he founded the Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus in Guadalajara when he was only 25. On June 25, 1927, he was arrested while preparing to celebrate Mass. Early the next morning, he was hanged from an oak tree, but not before he had forgiven his murderers and offered a prayer for his parish. He went so far as to place the rope around his own neck, so that none of his captors would hold the title of murderer.
Father Rodrigo Aguilar Alemán
Father Rodrigo Aguilar Alemán of Union de Tula in Jalisco was a member of Council 2330. After a warrant was issued for is arrest, he took refuge a the Colegio de San Ignacio in Ejutla, celebrating Mass and administering the sacraments.
Rather than escape when soldiers arrived, Father Aguilar Alemán remained at the seminary to burn the list of seminary students, and thus protect them from being known. When the soldiers demanded his identity, he told them only that he was a priest.
He was taken to the main square of Ejutla, where the seminary was located. He publicly forgave his killers, and then a soldier gave him the chance to save himself by giving the “right” answer to this question, “Who lives?”
But he replied, “Christ the King and Our Lady of Guadalupe.” The noose that had been secured to a mango tree was tightened, then relaxed twice. Each time it was relaxed, he was asked the same question and each time he gave the same response. The third time the noose was tightened, he died.
Father Luis Batiz Sainz
Father Luis Batiz Sainz was born in 1870, and was a member of Council 2367. On Aug. 15, 1926, at Chalchihuites, Zacatecas, he and three layman – David Roldan, who was only 19 at the time, Salvador Lara and Manuel Morales – were put before a firing squad for refusing to submit to anti-religious laws. When Father Batiz Sainz asked the soldiers to free one of the captives, Manuel Morales, who had sons and daughters, Morales wouldn’t hear of it.
“I am dying for God," he declared,” and God will care for my children.” Smiling, Father Batiz Sainz gave his friend absolution and said: “See you in heaven.”
Father Mateo Correa Magallanes
Father Mateo Correa Magallanes, who was a member of Council 2140, was arrested and taken to Durango. While in prison, he was ordered by the commanding officer on Feb. 5, 1927, to hear the confessions of his fellow prisoners. Then the commander demanded to know what they had told him. Of course, Father Correa Magallanes wouldn't violate the seal of confession, and so, the next day, he was taken to a local cemetery and executed by the soldiers.
Padre José T. Rangel Montaño
Padre Andrés Solá Molist
In 2005, two other Knights, also Mexican Martyrs, were beatified.
Father Jose Trinidad Rangel Montaño, a diocesan priest from Leon and member of Council 2484, and Claretian Father Andres Sola Molist, a Spaniard, and member of Council 1963. Both were executed for their faith in Rancho de San Joaquin, Mexico, in April 1927.
These men, and many thousands more, paid the ultimate sacrifice for their Catholic faith in Mexico during the 1920s and 1930s. But throughout that period, the Knights of Columbus in Mexico kept the faith and hundreds gave their lives to protect their beliefs, some as martyrs and others in the armed Cristero movement.
Always an advocate of peaceful struggle against the government, Pius XI singled out the Knights of Columbus for praise in his 1926 encyclical Iniquis Afflictisque, writing: “First of all we mention the Knights of Columbus, an organization which is found in all states of the [Mexican] Republic and fortunately is made up of active and industrious members who, because of their practical lives and open profession of the Faith, as well as by their zeal in assisting the Church, have brought great honor upon themselves.”
Mexican Knights, and the entire Church in Mexico, were consistently supported by the Knights in the United States who, in addition to distributing literature that informed the American people of the plight of the Church in Mexico, also lobbied President Calvin Coolidge to bring pressure to end the persecution.
In 1926, Coolidge met with a delegation of Knights including Supreme Knight James Flaherty, future Supreme Knight Luke Hart and Supreme Director William Prout. Coolidge affirmed his administration’s commitment to bringing about a resolution to the problems in Mexico.
Though the Knights had been outlawed in Mexico – even the Order’s Columbia magazine was temporarily banned – the Knights of Columbus survived. In 2005, at the centennial convention in Mexico City, Supreme Knight Carl Anderson declared that Mexican Knights are “second to none” in their commitment to “our founding ideals and their devotion to the Catholic faith.”
Borrowed from the Knights of Columbas Magazine Columbia online
A transmitted light image of the symbol underlying the northern patch on "La Virginea Pars" by John White, produced by lighting it from below. (P&D 1906,0509.1.3 (detail), © Trustees of the British Museum
A transmitted light image of the symbol underlying the northern patch on "La Virginea Pars" by John White, produced by lighting it from below. (P&D 1906,0509.1.3 (detail), © Trustees of the British MuseumAt a joint announcement on May 3, 2012, from 10:00 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. in the Pleasant's Family Room at UNC's Wilson Library, archaeologists and scholars from the First Colony Foundation and the British Museum will discuss recently discovered new information previously hidden within the map and possible implications for understanding the eventual fate of Raleigh's "lost colonists."
The "Virginea Pars" map was produced from explorations conducted by members of Sir Walter Raleigh's Roanoke Colony of 1584-1590. The remarkably-accurate map depicts the coastal area from Chesapeake Bay to Cape Lookout, including the location of many native American villages visited by the colonists. However, until now the map provided little information about the location of his planned "Cittie of Ralegh."
For Sir Walter Raleigh the map likely served to document the accomplishments of the Roanoke Colony to Queen Elizabeth and to his investors, and as a plan for the colony's future development. The discovery to be announced shows that the "Virginea Pars" map is an unexamined masterpiece that still guides modern efforts to locate the "Lost Colony."
Portions of a unique late 16th-century map in the British Museum (which documents voyages to North America for Sir Walter Raleigh), have recently been examined to reveal hitherto unseen lines and symbols that have been hidden for centuries. Using a variety of non-contact scientific methods carefully chosen to be safe to use with early paper, researchers at the British Museum in London are peering at and through two small 'patches' of paper applied to an Elizabethan map of parts of modern eastern North Carolina and tidewater Virginia. The first patch (number 1 at the southern end of the map) appears to have been applied primarily to allow the artist to alter the coastline. The second patch (number 2 at the northern end of the map) offers even more exciting finds. It appears to cover a large 'fort' symbol in bright red and bright blue and, and has a very faint (just barely visible to the naked eye) but much smaller version of a similar shape on top. There is also a red circle under the patch that may represent an Indian town. The map is part of a large set of watercolours that gave England and Europe its first accurate views of the new world of North America. Drawn by John White, these watercolours from the British Museum collection were the centrepiece of the New World exhibition held at the North Carolina Museum of History in Raleigh in 2007.
"La Virginea Pars", a map of the east coast of North America (c. 1585-87) produced by the Elizabethan artist and gentleman, John White (P&D 1906,0509.1.3, c. British Museum,) © Trustees of the British MuseumScholars of the North Carolina-based First Colony Foundation, a non-profit group utilizing archaeology and historical research to learn more about what are called the Roanoke Voyages, note that one of the altered portions of the map is an area explored by Raleigh's colonists in 1585 and 1586 and where the 1587 "lost colony" may have tried to resettle. The English had hoped to set up a series of outposts linking their territory, called Virginia in honor of Elizabeth I, northward to the James River, where a later generation established Jamestown, the first permanent English colony. First Colony Foundation researchers believe that it could mark, literally and symbolically, "the way to Jamestown." As such it is a unique discovery of the first importance.
Ongoing First Colony Foundation research to identify the location of White's iconic drawing of the Algonkian village of Secotan in the Pamlico region, prompted Brent Lane, Adjunct Professor of Heritage Education at the UNC Kenan Institute and a FCF scholar, to begin a careful comparison of White's map with what he knew of the local geography. Lane became intrigued with the paper patches and contacted the British Museum to determine whether they covered any words or images drawn on the paper beneath. Curators, conservators and scientists at the Museum have made preliminary investigations that are making new discoveries on a map of old discoveries.
Detail of " La Virginea Pars" by John White showing the area of one of two paper patches (the northern patch) stuck to the map (P&D 1906,0509.1.3 (detail), © Trustees of the British MuseumThere is no visible tear or cut in the paper under the two small paper pieces the researchers call "patches." It was common for artists at the time to make corrections to their work by placing clean pieces of paper or "patches" over areas they wished to change or re-draw. The northern, almost square patch (number 2) covers an area of the Albemarle Sound, where the Roanoke and Chowan Rivers join. There is only a slight correction to the coastline on its upper surface, but beneath it, on the original surface, is the possible fort symbol, which is visible only when the map is viewed on a light box. The southern patch (number 1) covers initial sketches of part of the Pamlico River, depicting its northern shoreline with ships sailing past. Here the watercolour image on the patch makes corrections to the drawing of the shoreline and river channels and the placing of some of the villages. Comparison of these changes to a sketch map sent back to England during the 1585 exploration may offer clues to the location of the important Algonkian town of Secotan.
These early English voyages to North America sponsored by Sir Walter Raleigh led to the exploration of the area around the Outer Banks and two attempts at colonization on Roanoke Island, NC. John White came with the expedition that brought the first colony in 1585, and most of his famous depictions of the North Carolina Algonkians and the local flora and fauna are from that voyage. This first, military colony returned to England in 1586. The following year White led another colony of 118 men, women and children to establish the "Cittie of Raleigh," of which White was to be the governor. But the colonists were landed on Roanoke Island and White returned to England for supplies shortly after the birth of his grand-daughter, Virginia Dare, the first English child born in America. Delayed by the attack of the Spanish Armada in 1588, White was unable to return to find his colonists until 1590, when he found the site deserted and the word "CROATOAN" carved into a post. This was the name of an island at Cape Hatteras occupied by friendly Native Americans, but all evidence indicates that in 1587 the colonists had planned to move inland.
An enhanced ultraviolet-reflected image of the very faint image on the surface of the northern patch on "La Virginea Pars" by John White (P&D 1906,0509.1.3 (detail) © Trustees of the British MuseumFirst Colony Foundation archaeologist Eric Klingelhofer of Mercer University, whose First Forts: Essays on the Archaeology of Proto-Colonial Fortifications, examined defences of this period, says the newly visible symbol of a Renaissance-style fort could "be associated with White's assertion that 'at my comming away they were prepared to remove from Roanoak 50 miles into the maine.'"
These first English attempts at American colonization were followed twenty years later by a permanent colony on the James River. Soon after the establishment of "James Fort," the English settlers went in search of survivors from Raleigh's 1587 colony. A sketch map they sent back to England bore a notation at the upper Albemarle Sound where the "king of paspahegh reported our men to be." The Jamestown colonists were never able to confirm the report.
First Colony Foundation historian James Horn of Colonial Williamsburg suggested in his recent book, A Kingdom Strange: The Brief and Tragic History of the Lost Colony of Roanoke, that the majority of the 1587 colonists relocated at the head of Albemarle Sound on the Chowan River. He comments that "documentary evidence suggests an early and sustained interest by the English in the Chowan and Roanoke River systems. The discovery of a symbol seemingly representing a fort where the Roanoke and Chowan Rivers meet provides dramatic confirmation of the colonists' interest in exploring the interior (where riches were to be found) and connecting the two Virginias, Roanoke and Jamestown."
John White entitled the map "La Virginea Pars" and based his work upon surveys and navigational measurements made by the Elizabethan mathematician and scientist Thomas Harriot. This map shows the coastal area from present Cape Henry, VA to Cape Lookout, NC, with a degree of accuracy that it is often compared to NASA satellite photographs. The British Museum reference number for the map is 1906,0509.1.3 and it can be found in the Museum's online database at More
Kim Sloan, A New World: England's First View of America, UNC Press, Chapel Hill, 2007
Each year on the anniversary of the battle of La Puebla, Mexico where the forces of Mexico under the leadership of Mexican General Ignacio Zaragoza Seguín defeated the of French Foreign Legion loaned by the Emperor Napoleon III of France to the Emeror Maximillian I of Mexico on May 5, 1862.
However there is another side of this story...
On the 30th of April, at 1 a.m., the 3rd company of the Foreign Regiment, consisting of 3 officers and 62 soldiers, marched en route to relieve the French Army being besieged at la Puebla, under the command of Captain Danjou. At 7 a.m., after a 15-mile march, they stopped at Palo Verde to rest. Soon a Mexican Army force of 600 cavalry was sighted. Captain Danjou ordered the company to form a square, this being a common practice by infantry of the period to defend against cavalry, and, though retreating, he rebuffed several cavalry charges, inflicting the first heavy losses on the Mexican army.
Finding a defensible position, Danjou made a stand in the Hacienda Camarón, an inn protected by a 9-foot-high-wall. His plan was to occupy Mexican forces to prevent attacks against the nearby convoy that Danjuo's men were escorting. While his legionnaires prepared to defend the inn, the Mexican commander, one Colonel Milan, demanded Danjou and soldiers surrender, noting the Mexican Army's numeric superiority. Danjou in the style of the French, replied: "We have munitions. We will not surrender." He then swore to fight to the death, an oath which was seconded by the men. Around mid-day the Mexicans were increased in size by the arrival of 1,200 infantry.
At noon, Captain Danjou was shot in the chest and died; his soldiers continued fighting despite overwhelming odds under the command of an inspired Lt. Vilain, who held out for four hours before falling during an assault. With their ammunition exhausted, the last of Danjou's soldiers, numbering a mere five under the command of Lt. Maudet, fixed bayonets and charged. Two men died outright, while the rest continued the assault. The tiny group was surrounded and beaten to the earth. Colonel Milan, commander of the Mexicans, managed to prevent his men from ripping the surviving legionnaires to pieces. When the last two survivors were asked to surrender, they insisted that Mexican soldiers allow them safe passage home, to keep their arms, and to escort the body of Captain Danjou. To that, the Mexican commander commented, "What can I refuse to such men? No, these are not men, they are devils," and, out of respect, agreed to these terms.
"Camerone Day" April 30, is an important day for the Legionnaires, when the wooden prosthetic hand of Capitaine Danjou is brought out for display and veneration in special ceremonies at the Legion headquarters at Aubagne, France.
After hearing of the battle, French Emperor Napoleon III had the name Camerone embroidered onto the flag of the Foreign Legion.
In 1892, a monument commemorating the battle was erected on the battlefield containing a plaque with the following inscription in French :"They were here less than sixty opposed to a whole army. Its mass crushed them. Life rather than bravery gave up these French soldiers at Camerone on 30 April 1863. In memory of them, the fatherland has erected this monument".
The hand of Captian Danjou. After the battle, it was picked up by a Mexican named Ramirez, who was arrested by an Austrian Lt. Karl Grübert who returned it to the Legion on July 17, 1865.
"Legio Patria Nostra" means the "Legion is our Homeland."
...Today is the great feast honoring all of the Catholic Martyrs of the English Reformation--those canonized by Pope Paul VI and those beatified by Popes John Paul II, Pius XI, and Leo XIII--This feast was moved to this date in 2000 with a new liturgical calendar for the dioceses of England and Wales approved by the Vatican; then in 2010 it was elevated to a Feast (not just a Memorial). Moving it to May 4 meant that the feast is celebrated on the anniversary of the protomartyrs of the English Reformation, the Priors of the Carthusian order, a parish priest, and the confessor and chaplain of the Brigittine order at Syon Abbey. These five men, St. John Houghton, St. Augustine Webster, St. Robert Lawrence, Blessed John Haile, and St. Richard Reynolds, were brutally executed at Tyburn before a crowd of Court witnesses. Some sources even suggest that Henry VIII was there in disguise. Drawn on hurdles from the Tower of London (whence St. Thomas More saw them depart), they were hung and quartered while still alive... more:
As we see in the last post on this blog the persecutions have not stopped.
Looking appropriately cinematic, the Loire River swarmed with wooden boats carrying locals in medieval garb on Tuesday, reenacting Joan of Arc’s famous entry into the city in 1429.
The day that saw Orleans liberated from English invaders has been dramatized in film the world over, most famously in 1948’s Oscar-winning epic of the French martyr with Ingrid Bergman, and more recently, in Luc Besson’s award-winning 1999 blockbuster with Milla Jovovich.
Joan’s place in the history books has not only been sealed through cinema, but through myriad novels, poems, rock songs, operas and plays over the centuries — making her one of the most talked about figures in history.
“It’s marvelous to see the children dressing up and learning about this great French heroine who’s known all over the world,” said Jacques Dubarre, dressed in a velvet mantel. “Of course we’re also having fun.”
In a testament to her international appeal, some 600 contemporary artists — from as far as the U.S., Japan and Russia — have made portraits of Joan of Arc through the ages that will be projected on the City Hall this Friday.
Later in the week, a medieval market will be the scene of period cuisine and music, while a sound and light show will be projected on the city’s Gothic cathedral to celebrate her life.
Despite the enduring fame, it’s been a rocky ride for the teenage legend.
At just 17, Joan led the French army to victory, only to be burned at the stake as a heretic two years later.
She was heralded as a political symbol of the French far left during World War II, only to be snatched up as the mascot of the far right thirty years later.
It seems like the only thing that anyone can agree on is that she is the ultimate French icon.
“The two most famous figures from France are Napoleon and Joan of Arc, no others quite come close,” said Russian journalist Vladimir Dobrovolsky, one of the estimated 40,000 people who attended Tuesday.
But why does a woman whose achievements spanned a mere two years inspire so much fascination?
“She achieved greatness but died young and was wronged. She had strong convictions and character but she was a woman, a virgin,” said Olivier Bouzy, historian and adviser on Luc Besson’s 1999 movie, “The Messenger: The Story of Joan of Arc.” ‘’Yes, in many ways she was ahead of her time.”
In France she is seen as a sort of symbol of the nation (”nation” being a feminine word in French), but the myths around her began relatively late.
It was in World War I that an effigy of Joan of Arc in armor, which appeared on pictures and postcards, first came to symbolize war and nationhood — in this case, the French fight against Germany.
“Yes, she is the symbol of the nation at war, but the biggest myth is that she actually led the French in battle. She was a prophet who morally guided the army to victory. She was no commander or fighter,” said Bouzy.
Questions about her exact identity have left subsequent eras room to fill in the gaps and allowed diverse groups to claim her as inspiration. French far right leader Marine Le Pen staged her anti-immigrant National Front’s annual May 1 rally Tuesday in front of a huge Joan of Arc banner.
Bouzy predicts Joan’s identity may shift yet again: “Since the ‘80s she has been an extreme right political figure, but after the Luc Besson film, she’s back in the realm of culture, softer.”
There indeed seems to be renewed interest in the “softer” cultural face of Joan of Arc. She is currently the subject of a play by the well-known Japanese drama company Theatre No, which will run in Orleans from Saturday.
“Everyone wants to appropriate her, and have their piece,” said Orleans deputy mayor, Jean-Pierre Gabelle, “but this festival will put her back where she belongs.”
The festival, in the city of Orleans, runs until May 13.
Published: 28/04/2012 at 04:58 PM Online news: World 6
The tiny principality of Liechtenstein has been rattled by a war of words between activists who want to revoke the royal veto and the hereditary prince, who has threatened to quit if they do.
"The royal family is not willing to undertake its political responsibilities unless the prince ... has the necessary tools at his disposal," says Prince Alois.
Liechtenstein owes its very existence as a principality to its royal family and their princes, who have ruled it as an autonomous monarchy since the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806.
But the current ruler, Hereditary Prince Alois von und zu Liechtenstein, has threatened that his 900-year-old family will drop its royal duties if Liechtenstein passes a referendum eliminating the prince's veto, a power enshrined in the constitution.
"The royal family is not willing to undertake its political responsibilities unless the prince ... has the necessary tools at his disposal," Alois said in a speech to parliament on March 1.
"But if the people are no longer open to that, then the royal family will not want to undertake its political responsibilities and ... will completely withdraw from political life."
With 36,000 inhabitants and a surface area of 160.5 square kilometres, the bucolic monarchy sandwiched between Austria and Switzerland enjoys one of the highest living standards in the world thanks to its industrial and financial sectors.
Long considered a tax haven, Liechtenstein has an average annual per capita income of $137,070, according to the World Bank -- the second-highest in the world after Monaco.
Alois' father Hans-Adam II, who transferred sovereignty to his eldest son in 2004 but officially remains head of state, is worth nearly $4.0 billion, according to Forbes magazine.
But the family, which still lives in its ancestral castle towering over the capital Vaduz has run into an attack on its power in the form of a petition drive dubbed "Yes, for your voice to count".
The slogan refers to plans by a citizens' committee to launch a referendum that would repeal the prince's veto power.
The movement first gained steam last year, when Alois, a 43-year-old father of four, threatened to veto a referendum legalising abortion if citizens passed it.
After an acrimonious campaign, the referendum failed. Proponents blamed the prince's veto threat.
"The referendum was doomed to fail," Sigvard Wohlwend, a spokesman for the movement, told AFP. He said the veto threat had "torpedoed" its chances in a monarchy where the royal family is still treated with reverence.
Wohlwend, who said the current campaign grew out of the abortion referendum, insisted the activists' goal is not to do away with the monarchy but to give more power to Liechtenstein's people.
But it is an uphill battle.
The campaign must gather 1,500 signatures by May 10 to call a referendum -- not so easy in the fourth-smallest country in Europe, after the Vatican, Monaco and San Marino.
"It's like a village here, and everyone knows everyone else. People don't want anyone to know they're voting for the referendum," Wohlwend said.
Campaigners are trying to assuage residents' fears.
"The prince would retain all his rights and the monarchy would remain in place," Paul Vogt, a committee member, explained in the local press.
Wilfried Marxer, a political scientist and director of the Liechtenstein Institute, said other small states such as San Marino manage to survive without monarchies.
But in Liechtenstein, he said, the monarchy is a "deeply anchored tradition".
"People are afraid they would lose their identity and their quality of life if the monarchy disappeared," he said.
On top of that, "The prince has not shown any willingness to compromise," he added.
A final obstacle: even if the referendum passed, the prince would have the power to veto it -- though analysts say it's more likely he would resign his duties and retire from politics.
The same thing was attempted in Luxembourg and suceeded. It is a sin to believe that the children have power over the parent, or that subjects have more authority than the sovereign. Notice the showdown began over abortion. Satan is alive in Europe.
God help the Prince.
MOURNING IN THE HOUSE OF BOURBON
May 3 2012. Madame the Duchess dowager of Anjou, Duchess of Ségovie, born Emanuela of Dampierre of the Dukes of San Lorenzo has has expired in her 98th year, at her residence of the Palace Massimo in Rome.
Born in Rome November 8 1913, she was widow of Monseigneur the Duke of Anjou and of Ségovie (de jure Jacques-Henri VI), the mother Monseigneur the Duke of Anjou and of Cadiz (de jure Alphonse II), the grandmother of Monseigneur the duke of Anjou and of Bourbon (de jure Louis XX) and great grandmother of Monseigneur the duke of Burgundy (de jure heir apparent of France).
Madame the Duchess was for several decades the soul of the Légitimists. May her soul rest in peace!
Je présente mon très respectueuses condoléances à Mgr le Prince Louis, duc d'Anjou,
Madame la Princesse Marie Marguerite, duchesse d'Anjou.
Dieu Sauve le Roi!
Au 12 ème siècle Saint Bernard fait de la Rose le symbole de la Vierge et donc de la pureté : " Marie est une Rose blanche pour sa virginité, vermeille par sa charité, blanche par la pratique de la vertu, vermeille par l'écrasement du vice."
O Marie, Soleil du ciel, réveillez la vie là ou elle s'est éteinte, éclairez l'intelligence ou règnent les ténèbres . Aussi souvent que vous vous reflétez dans le visage de vos enfants, donnez-nous un reflet de votre lumière et de votre ardeur !
Forte comme une armée, accordez la victoire à nos légions. Nous sommes si fragiles et l'ennemi se déchaîne avec une telle arrogance. Mais sous votre étendard, nous sommes sûrs de vaincre. Il connaît la force de votre pied, il craint la majesté de votre regard. Sauvez-nous ô Marie, belle comme la lune, splendide comme le soleil, forte comme une armée rangée en bataille, qui ne s'appuie pas sur la haine, mais sur la flamme de l'amour. Ainsi soit-il.
Why don't parents use these names for their daughters any more?
Clothilde (475-545) wife of Clovis I, King of the Franks
Ultrogothe (497-?) wife of Childebert I
Gonteheuque (495-532) wife of Clodomir I , King of Orleans, then Clotaire I, King of Nuestrie
Ingonde (510-546) wife of Clotaire I , King of Nuestrie
Arnegonde (515-573) another wife of Clotaire I and sister of Ingonde
Radegonde (520-587) another wife of Clotaire I
Ingoberge (519-587) 1st wife of Caribert I, King of Aquitaine and Paris
Miroflede (?-?) 2nd wife of Caribert I, King of Aquitaine and Paris
Marcovese (?-?) 3rd wife of Caribert I, King of Aquitaine and Paris and sister of Miroflede
Teudegilde (unk-589) 4th wife of Caribert I, King of Aquitaine and Paris
Audovere (533-580) 1st wife of Childepric I, King of Nuestrie
Galeswinthe (540-568) 2nd wife of Childepric I, King of Nuestrie
Fredgonde (533-580) 3rd wife of Childepric I, King of Nuestrie
Brunehaut (534-613) wife of Sigebert I, King of Austrasie
Hadeltrude (580-602) 1st wife of Clotaire II, King of Nuestrie and of Austrasie
Beretrude (582-618) 2nd wife of Clotaire II, King of Nuestrie and of Austrasie
Sichilde (590-?) 3rd wife of Clotaire II, King of Nuestrie and of Austrasie
Gomatrude (598-630) 1st wife of Dagobert I, King of Nuestrie and of Austrasie, and sister of Sichilde
Nanthilde (610-642) 2nd wife of Dagobert I, King of Nuestrie and of Austrasie
Bathehilde (654-673) wife of Clovis II, King of Austrasie
Bichilde (654-673) wife of Childeric II, King of Austrasie
Clothilde (650-699) wife of Therry I (lazy) King of Austrasie
Plectrude (?-?) wife of Pepin of Herstal, the mayor of the Palace and duke of the Franks, she imprisoned his bastard son Charles Martel, who later became mayor of the palace of Nuestrie and Austrasie
Rotrude (?-724) 1st wife of Charles Martel, mayor of the palace of Nuestrie and Austrasie
Sonichilde (?-?) 2nd wife of Charles Martel, mayor of the palace of Nuestrie and Austrasie
Gisle (715-755)wife of Childeric II last (puppet) Merigovian King
I did have a nun in kindergarten named Sister Mary Radegonde, SND, who lives in heaven now.
This Christian custom of dedicating the month of May to the Blessed Virgin arose at the end of the 13th century. In this way, the Church was able to Christianize the secular feasts which were wont to take place at that time. In the 16th century, books appeared and fostered this devotion. The practice became especially popular among the members of the Jesuit Order — by 1700 it took hold among their students at the Roman College and a bit later it was publicly practiced in the Gesu Church in Rome. From there it spread to the whole Church.
The practice was granted a partial indulgence by Pius VII in 1815 and a plenary indulgence by Pius IX in 1859. With the complete revision of indulgences in 1966 and the decreased emphasis on specific indulgences, it no longer carries an indulgence; however it certainly falls within the category of the First General Grant of Indulgences. (A partial indulgence is granted to the faithful who, in the performance of their duties and in bearing the trials of life, raise their mind with humble confidence to God, adding — even if only mentally — some pious invocation.
Ora pro nobis, Sancta Dei Genetrix,
Here is my analogy: We have 2 glasses, one is 3/4 full and one is 3/4 empty. There are 2 ways to make these glasses equal, pour 1/4 of the more full glass into the glass with 3/4 empty thus reducing the one and raising the other. This is the Occupy Wall Street's ideal solution. It requires no work and the object of their jealousy is reduced. The otter solution is for the 1/4 full glass to be filled to it's full potential. However this requires work and they don't get to pull anyone down. Theirs is a phylosophy of hate.
Any one who differs from the view of the occupy people are wrong in their eyes an must be delt with accordingly. That puts me in the mind of Les Tricoteuses. These were the women who sat around the guillotine, keeping track of the number of executions with their knitting. They embodied the Terror of the French Revolution, for they seemed to be drawn to the blood and the violence, so consumed were they by hatred. When women are out for blood, they can be more ruthless than men, and far more cruel. Most of les tricoteuses, "the knitters," were simple and ignorant women, manipulated both by their own passions and by the leaders of the various factions. The manipulation was facilitated by famine, war and social chaos, all of which spiraled out of control amid the violence of the Revolution. more
Other than famine which of the above reasons do we lack?
Eventually these occupiers will get out the gullotines and polish them off...
History does seem to have parallels.
The peaceful 99%...
...As the spirit of liberté, égalité and fraternité swirled through Paris in the early days of the French Revolution, Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin rose before the National Assembly in 1789 to lobby for equality in a most unlikely area: capital punishment. The Parisian deputy and anatomy professor argued that it was unfair for common criminals in France to be executed by tortuous methods such as hanging, burning at the stake and breaking on the wheel while aristocratic felons had the privilege of quick decapitations, particularly if they tipped their executioners to ensure swift sword chops... more...
On this page you may see if you have an ancestor killed by the terror.
Begun in 1283 as part of Edward I's second Welsh campaign, the castle was part of Edward's "iron ring" of castles around Snowdonia, "a string of new castles to hem the prince in". Construction began in 1283, "within days of Edward's arrival". Like many of the castles in the area, Harlech was designed by Master James of St. George. The castle took seven years to build, and cost an estimated £8,190 to build..Following its completion, James was appointed Constable of Harlech Castle, a position he held for over three years.
All the royal castles of Edward's second Welsh campaign were sited "so that they could be kept supplied at all times". Harlech, "although it now appears landlocked, was not always so isolated". The sea used to come to the foot of the cliffs.
The castle is built to a concentric plan, with one line of defences enclosed by another. The outer walls are much shorter and thinner than the mighty inner walls, and have no towers defending them besides the small gatehouse. The inner ward is roughly square, with a large round tower at each corner. The domestic buildings, including the great hall, are built against the inside of the inner walls. Since the surrounding cliffs made it practically impossible to attack the castle except from the east, this side is faced by the imposing gatehouse. The gate is flanked by two massive "D-shaped" towers, the standard plan of the era, and defended by a series of doors, portcullises and murder-holes. Noteably, there are large windows on the inner face of the gatehouse, showing its second role as the premier domestic accommodation. The west wall of the inner ward also has large windows (as it forms one wall of the great hall), which would make it vulnerable were it not for the aforementioned cliffs.
The outer ditches at Harlech were "hacked through solid rock". In the height of construction, in 1286, the workforce was "546 general labourers... 115 quarriers, 30 blacksmiths, 22 carpenters and 227 stonemasons."
Harlech is also notable for an unusual feature: the "way from the sea". Edward's forces were often in danger from land-based attack, but he enjoyed total supremacy on water. Many of his castles included "sally ports" which allowed resupply from the sea, but Harlech's is far more elaborate. Here, a fortified stairway hugs the rock and runs almost 200 feet down to the foot of the cliffs, where (at the time of construction) the sea reached. Today, the sea has retreated several miles, making it more difficult to envisage the concept in its original setting. James of St. George's plan was a triumph; when the castle was besieged during Madoc ap Llywelyn's campaign, this stairway was used to supply the castle.
Like many of Edward's castles, Harlech was originally designed to work in tandem with city walls.
After the completion of the castle, Master James was made constable between 1290–1293, a high status job, that gave him time to work on Edward's castles that were also under construction.
In 1294, Madoc ap Llywelyn, cousin to Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, began an uprising against English rule that spread quickly through Wales. Several English-held towns were razed and Harlech (along with Criccieth Castle and Aberystwyth Castle) were besieged that winter. As noted above, the "Way to the Sea" helped the defenders survive until the siege was lifted the following spring.
In 1404, the castle fell to Owain Glyndŵr after a long siege when starvation reduced the determined and fearful garrison to just twenty-one men, becoming his residence and family home and military headquarters for four years. He held his second parliament in Harlech in August 1405. Four years later, after another long siege of eight months, Harlech Castle was retaken in 1409 by Prince Henry (later Henry V) and a force of 1000 men under *John Talbot the Earl of Shrewsbury, during which Edmund Mortimer starved to death and Glyndŵr's wife, Margaret Hanmer, two of his daughters and four grandchildren were captured, later to be imprisoned and die. The actual number of defenders is unknown but a story tells of 12 Welsh defenders.
In the Wars of the Roses in the first part of Edward IV of England's reign (1461–1470), Harlech was held by its Welsh constable Dafydd ap Ieuan as a Lancastrian stronghold. Following the Battle of Northampton, Margaret of Anjou and the infant Henry VII of England fled to Scotland via Harlech. Following the defeat of the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton, Edward controlled the country and Harlech eventually became last major stronghold under their control. Sir Richard Tunstall arrived as a reinforcement to the Lancastrians in the latter half of the siege in 1465. In 1468 it was the last Lancastrian fortress to surrender; it was able to withstand the seven-year siege through its being provisioned from the sea. It is the longest known siege in the history of the British Isles. This famous siege inspired the song "Men of Harlech" according to tradition.
During the English Civil War the castle was the last royalist fortress to hold out against the Parliamentary forces. The surrender, on 16 March 1647, over a year after King Charles had himself been captured, marked the end of the first phase of the war. The parliamentarians **slighted the castle after its fall.
*Sir John Talbot fought against The Maid of Orleans
**...Removed the turrets from the towers thereby removing it's ability to resist attack. It was a common practice especially after the advent of canon.
April 27, 2012
What this 14th-century mystic can teach us about fidelity to Christ and to a Church in crisis. an essay by Thomas McDermott, OP
In the wake of so many clerical sex abuse scandals, to many people the Catholic Church appears hypocritical and bankrupt morally and spiritually. In the midst of such trying times, how can Catholics justify remaining in the Church? The words and deeds of St. Catherine of Siena (1347-1380), Dominican Mantelatta—or penitential woman—who lived during an earlier crisis, can offer us some guidance and hope.
Catherine lived in worse times than our own because it was not only the Church that seemed to be collapsing, but larger society and even the world itself. The Black Death, or bubonic plague—one of the deadliest pandemics in human history—reached Sicily via Genoese trading ships from the Black Sea the year Catherine was born. It is said that four-fifths of the population of Siena died from the plague the following year. There would be several successive waves of the disease during Catherine’s lifetime. One anonymous chronicler in Siena at the time wrote: “And no bells tolled, and nobody wept no matter what his loss because almost everyone expected death…. And people said and believed, ‘This is the end of the world.’”
At the time, Italy was a conglomeration of feuding monarchies, communes, and republics with factions such as the Guelphs, who supported the papacy, and the Ghibellines, who supported the northern Italian rulers. The Italian peninsula was beset by foreign mercenaries, the most famous of which was the Englishman John Hawkwood, to whom Catherine directed one of her 381 letters. Outside of Italy, the Hundred Years War between England and France was raging, and there was the additional threat of militant Islam as seen in the advance of the Turks twice to Vienna. ...more at the World Catholic Catholic Report
My parish in Clarksville Virginia is St Catherine of Siena.